Into the heart of Cape York – part II, the snakes and cuscus

Into the heart of Cape York – part II, the snakes and cuscus

The next morning arrived and Steve appeared. I asked him about getting supplies from the supermarket.

“Yeah… ya might wanna go before nine or ten this morning, or ya might find all o’ the good stuff’ll be gorn. Supplies run out quick, an’ they’re bloody expensive.”

So we headed down to the supermarket and found that it was pretty crowded, it was going to be closed for a few days. To our surprise Les was in the bakery section, serving bread and roast chickens. We chatted quickly and bumped into Nev from the airport. It was like we were already “local”. Lockhart River is an Indigenous community. The supermarket was a hive of activity as everyone was buying supplies for Christmas. Locals worked at the cash registers and staffed the shop. Government incentives are in place to curb unhealthy eating habits in these communities by subsidizing fresh fruits and vegetables. There is a “healthy” section in the refrigerators bordered by a cartoon Elder with his thumbs up and the caption “Big Jim says thumbs up to good tucker”.

With some supplies, we headed out to book the campsite for the next few days. I did it all online with my phone, which was a massive hassle with Queensland Parks and Wildlife who think that everyone has internet all of the time. Lockhart River sort of has it. Well, after doing all of it online, setting up an account, confirming it, setting up payment and car details, for technical reasons it was rejected as I was confirming it so I had a painful conversation with a consultant over the phone. She asked many irrelevant questions including what kind of car we had. Apparently only 4WD vehicles are allowed to the campgrounds. Any car can navigate these roads, even a golf buggy! There are no car restrictions on the road and the campgrounds are only three to twenty metres from the roads anyway. I lied and said the Hilux was a 4WD, even though it wasn’t. With that out of the way, I noticed a storm was looming, so we drove back to Paul’s house.

Phil was clearly loving this adventure. We laughed at how strange the town was, at least compared to the strict rules and regulations in mainstream Australia. Kids as young as ten were scooting around on quad bikes, nobody wore seatbelts, and when I was fuelling up the car the local policeman stepped out of the patrol car in shorts, singlet and sandals.

When we returned to Paul’s, Steve was talking to a massive, dark skinned man, not Indigenous in appearance but more like an Islander, which he turned out to be. From the Solomon Islands, Paul Piva sported tribal tattoos, immense shoulders, arms like tree boughs and a massive smile. Without doubt one of the kindest and friendliest people I have ever met, We shook hands and he welcomed us, but I had business to discuss.

“Mate,” I started “What do you want to do about the car? Want some money, forms…?”

“Nah bro. She’s right, we’ll sort it out later.”

“So, we doing the price on the website?”

“Nah, too expensive” he chuckled. “Anyway, where you mob off to? You can camp here as long as you like. Use the fridge, leave stuff here, it’s all good. I came back late last night, saw you in here, thought nothing of it and went to bed.”

“Off to camp in the forest. Already paid for the site, besides, we want to be in the forest. It’s better for finding the things we are looking for.”

“Suit yourselves. The offer’s still open. You need anything? I can set up a marquee, generator…”

“Don’t worry about it” said Phil. “It’s fine, we have camped in worse. All part of the adventure!” He looked in the direction of the oncoming storm.

We set off in the ute to the nearby rainforest. It was at this point we noticed how unusual it really was. At night it didn’t look all that different to most other tropical rainforests, but by day it showed its true colours. The trees were the most obvious thing; they were very low on average; truly large emergents were rare or absent. Most of the forest was less than ten metres tall from what we could see. It was also very muddy and full of bamboo, but this species had broad leaves and grew in tangled masses rather than straight up. There really wasn’t much forest on the road either, in ten minutes you could easily be out the other side in the heath country. The road itself was also very passable. Although it was dirt, potholes were rare other than at the bridges over the creeks, but even they could easily be passed with a small car. The Iron Range is a very user-friendly place from what we could see.

Because we had a ute with an open tray, there was absolutely no shelter for our worldly goods. We had left some at Paul’s, but the rest such as clothing and tools, charging equipment etcetera had to be carried in waterproof barrels; already the barrels had been drenched with rain, but everything was still dry inside. After some messing about the tent was set up and the airbeds filled.

Something strange caught my attention. A long trill rang out from a tree directly above us. Straining to see its source, I had my suspicions. Eventually I did find it- a small, bright yellow bird with green metallic wings. A yellow billed kingfisher (Syma torotoro) was the only one of ten kingfisher species I had not seen in Australia, and the one with the most restricted distribution in the country. Also found in New Guinea, it is the only Australian kingfisher with a yellow bill, which is serrated. It, like most Australian kingfishers hunts on land, but spends most of its time in the tree tops and is very hard to observe. Even harder to photograph, I could not manage a single useful image of the bird. The pair were occupying a termite nest in preparation for breeding. Like most Australian kingfishers, they gouge a hole in the termite mound and lay their eggs in it, the young will fledge in less than a month. This species prefers to nest high up in arboreal mounds well out of reach of most predators.

As the day went by, we readied ourselves for the night ahead. When Phil and I do the annual herping trip, one thing we do frequently are all-nighters. It is common to be returning as the sun rises. Getting wildlife images does require some real dedication!

Another bird called from deep in the forest, in the direction of the Claudie River. A deep gong like note “Gwarnk!” meant I was hearing one of the Australian birds of paradise, the Trumpet Manucode (Phonygammus keraudrenii). A black bird with an oily purple shine and red eyes, it is a fruit eater; this trip we only heard the one. I had, however glimpsed them in Papua years earlier. Regularly flying overhead were red cheeked parrots (Geoffroyus geoffroyi), a green parrot with reddish heads and a strange, short stumpy tail that makes them look rather incomplete, as if they should have a long tail.

All around the campsite another must-see bird was hard at work. Magnificent riflebirds (Ptiloris magnificus) are also a bird of paradise, famous for their display dance which involves curving the rounded wings up and swinging the head from side to side while calling for females. Females are brown while males are jet black with brilliant iridescence all over and lace like feathers down the sides. Males also make a “plastic bag rustling” sound in flight. The normal call sounds like a person whistling for attention: “Wheeew-wit!”. Imitating the call brought a female out into view, but against the bright sky photography was futile. These birds spend the day prying under loose bark and rotting wood for insects.

Phil badly wanted to find a brown headed snake (Furina tristis). A common species on Cape York, it is venomous yet the venom is poorly understood and can make a victim very uncomfortable. Steve had given us directions for a known spot in town where rubbish has been left lying around. Near there was a spot known for palm cockatoos and the funny little fawn breasted bowerbird, or “Pootchiwoo” as it is known to the local community. This bird was to be a massive nightmare for me in the following days. I found neither bird that day so I joined Phil who was ecstatic about something.

Brown Headed Snake (Furina tristis)

Brown Headed Snake (Furina tristis)

I found one!” he called out.
  I knew what it was without him spelling it out. Almost breathless he told me it was under a piece of roofing metal. So we lifted it back up again and managed some photos of this unusual snake. A member of the cobra family it feeds on small lizards such as skinks and geckos. Also under the sheet metal in other spots were a number of Cape York ground geckos (Nactus eboracensis), with claws instead of pads and white spots over a dark purplish body. It was now twilight, so we headed back to camp.

Nactus eboracensis

Nactus eboracensis


Soon enough the night came. The forest was alive with tiny Cape York whistle-frogs (Austrochaperina gracilipes), the repetitive “peep…peep…peep…” call was a pleasant background sound. These tiny frogs were everywhere, and they call from the leaf litter and will move about while calling. They have a great little trick – the eggs do not need water, only moisture. Males entice females to damp leaf litter where they deposit eggs. The male then remains with them until they hatch as miniature frogs – totally skipping the tadpole stage.

Austrochaperina gracilipes 002

Cape York whistle frog (Austrochaperina gracilipes)



We went on patrol in the car for a couple of hours, almost immediately finding a slatey grey snake (Stegonotus cucullatus) beside the road. These snakes are not venomous, but are extremely unpleasant to handle, exuding a foul smell and biting repeatedly. I caught a similar slatey brown snake in Papua that took over half an hour to stop striking at me and chewing my boot. Snakes from the Stegonotus genus have unusual teeth in the back of the jaws that seem to be for slitting reptile eggs. Normally a very common species, this was the only one we saw.

Slatey Grey Snake (Stegonotus cucullatus)

Slatey Grey Snake (Stegonotus cucullatus)

Dainty Green Tree Frog (Litoria gracilenta)

Dainty Green Tree Frog (Litoria gracilenta)


Further on, there was another snake we saw in a low tree. Also very common, we saw a few of these. Brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) are easily identified with the broad head, vertical pupils and distinct loreal scale (meaning there are three scales in a straight line from the back of the nostril to the front of the eye). This one was pretty lively and in order to get the shots I needed with the wide-angle lens, I had to get close. The snake responded by striking and biting down on my stomach through my shirt. It hurt a little and drew blood. Luckily, they are only mildly venomous and rear fanged. I have been bitten by them before with no ill effect.

Brown Tree snake, night tiger (Boiga irregularis)

Brown Tree snake, night tiger (Boiga irregularis)


One animal that was extremely common was the large tailed nightjar (Caprimulgus macrourus). We saw plenty on and around the roads, their extremely bright eyeshine giving them away. It was a simple matter to step out of the car and take a picture. Many had young and I wondered how many get run over as they were often less than 30cm from the road. These nocturnal birds sleep by day on the ground, camouflaged in the leaf litter and by night feed on flying insects. The chicks are surprisingly precocious, upon hatching can bite attackers, hide and feed themselves. This bird is widespread through northern Australia and southeast Asia, and can be distinguished from other Australian nightjars by the white tail panels.

Large Tailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus macrourus)

Large Tailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus macrourus)

Union Jack Butterfly (Delias mysis)

Union Jack Butterfly sleeping (Delias mysis)

Rainforest Toadstool

Rainforest Toadstool

Back at camp, I noticed something high up in a mango tree. It was a fluffy white and grey animal about the size of a rabbit. It had a prehensile tail and round looking face. It was none other than a spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculata) and yet another example of an animal that normally belongs in New Guinea. Unfortunately it was far too high up for any photographs but it was great to see this beautiful marsupial in its natural habitat peering down at me.

There is a track behind the campsite that goes down to the Claudie River. So we had a quick look around in case a green python might be there. In a weeping fig above us, I noticed another cuscus. This time it was the “rare” cuscus, confusingly named the “Southern common cuscus” (Phalanger mimicus). This species is apparently much harder to find than the spotted, and is also restricted to the far north of Cape York, at least in Australia. It sat dead still while we took photos, but my lens had fogged up badly so the image quality was rather poor.

Southern Common Cuscus (Phalanger mimicus)

Southern Common Cuscus (Phalanger mimicus)


But no green pythons. We decided to walk the Claudie track near camp and search the more open forest. Bats zoomed past as we walked, both insect eating microbats and larger fruit eaters like the eastern tubenose. They were all too fast for photographs, but some eyeshine in a low tree got my attention. One of the species I most wanted to see was right in front of me. A giant tree gecko (Pseudothecadactylus australis) had made a poor choice and was cornered on a tree stump. It gave me the full display while Phil was catching up. An open, black mouth and scream like a baby made it the coolest, and creepiest gecko I had ever seen. This genus has three members, the other two are giant cave geckoes found in sandstone country further west. This species is unique in having adhesive pads not only under the feet, but also the tail! Extremely photogenic, it posed perfectly before we left it to continue whatever it was doing. We did see more, though they were generally higher up in the trees.

Giant Tree Gecko (Pseudothecadactylus australis)

With a scream like a baby, large size and adhesive pads under the tail, it is hard not to be slightly creeped out and amazed at the Giant Tree Gecko (Pseudothecadactylus australis)


Tree frogs were also ridiculously abundant; every low tree seemed to have at least one in it. But we still needed to find a green python. I made the decision to go for another drive. We were wrecked, it was so tiring scanning the forest for what should have been a common snake. A couple of hours later we had given up. It was now Christmas (on the calendar at least) As we neared camp, I swung into another campground nearby and scanned the trees. My heart almost stopped. I slammed the brakes on and told Phil to have a look around and see what he could find. He saw it too. The brightest yellow I had ever seen in nature had caught my eye. Just above the ground, partly wrapped around a horizontal rattan was a juvenile green python (Morelia viridis). Its head was pointed down and it was in the strike position. There were tiny white spots and dashes, especially along the backbone and top of the head, each had a hint of red around it. Maroon flecks dotted the flanks. The snake was only small, at 30cm or so. This bright yellow (sometimes orange or red) juvenile colour is replaced quickly by the emerald green of adults.

Juvenile Green Python (Morelia viridis)

Juvenile Green Python (Morelia viridis)


To say we were excited is a severe understatement. Nothing prepared us for how beautiful this snake was in real life. Photographs could do it no justice, but we did our best in trying. It froze in position; the only movement was it slowly breathing. Never have I found such a photogenic, cooperative snake. It was barely a challenge to take the best snake shots I ever had. We left the python where it was in exactly the same position and went to bed, extremely pleased but also red-eyed and exhausted.

Juvenile Green Python (Morelia viridis)

Juvenile Green Python head detail (Morelia viridis)


Quick note: It is very interesting to note the extreme similarities between the green tree python and emerald boa (Corallus caninus) of South America. Both share the green adult colour and yellow/red juvenile phase. Both have similar diets and even rest in the same unusual coils on horizontal branches. In fact they are so similar, a casual observer might have trouble distinguishing one from another. The easiest way to tell them apart at a glance is that the boa has large scales on top of the head.

Into the heart of Cape York part I- Iron Range Frogs

Lockhart River waterfront panorama 2 001-Pano

Lockhart River waterfront panorama

It was a hot November day as we rumbled around a corner on the Cape York Development road on a freshwater fish researching trip. Cape York is the northernmost tip of continental Australia. All part of the state of Queensland, it is largely remote and undeveloped – save for a few small communities and the town of Weipa on its western coast. Weipa was our destination, though driving past the turnoff to the tiny seaside town of Portland Roads via the Iron Range was taunting me, especially considering the good state of the dirt roads at the time. I just had to go there.

It’s a long way from anywhere…

The Iron Range was a US/Australian military stronghold in northern Australia during WWII, though these days it is a region that is out of the way of most travellers. The human population resides in two towns: Portland Roads and Lockhart River, both separated by about 30km of dirt road that winds through a small section of the rainforest.

It was the rainforest that really drew my attention. Far more like the forests of New Guinea than the rest of northern Australia, it is home to several unique species of plant and animal found nowhere else- pretty much the rest of them are otherwise only found in nearby New Guinea. The turnoff was soon lost in the dust of the rear vision mirror, but my plans were just forming.

When we returned to Cairns, I called up Phil Lewis to see what he thought. The original plan we hatched was to fly into Weipa and drive the two and a half hours in a hire car to Lockhart River. Rain seemed unlikely, so the five river crossings should have been pretty easy. I looked into flights direct to Lockhart, and for $750 return we could fly in via small aircraft if the weather got too bad.

As unlikely as it was, a massive rain depression formed and threatened to drown the Cape, so as quickly as I could, I booked us return flights with Skytrans. As for a car, I stumbled upon Lockhart River Car Hire. Paul, the owner was hard to reach but the price of $128/day for a car was pretty unbeatable. With the car finally secured, it was time to say goodbye to my ever tolerant partner Linda and collect Phil at Cairns.

The rain depression was a bit troublesome – planes were going to be grounded on the 24th of December- our flying day as for the next few days it would be too risky to attempt landing. Skytrans called me to say that we would have to fly on the 23rd or else not at all.

So Phil and I packed our bags early and headed for the airport. Thunderclouds loomed in the distance as we took off in a small plane and headed north. Being a small regional carrier, we had to stop at the community of Coen to collect and drop off some passengers (rather like a flying community bus) before passing over the Macillwraith Range (the southern part of the Iron Range type rainforest). The rainforest covered hills were marked by snaking creeks and rivers. A waterfall complete with a large plunge pool slid by below us. The air was obviously humid from the beginning of the rains as steam lifted off the slopes and condensed in clouds.

Soon enough we started to descend. Rainforest gave way to larger rivers and swamps lined in Nypa palms. The rainforest was clearly defined around the edges; it did not fade into the surrounding savannah and heathland but one habitat abruptly became another as if cut out by jagged scissors.

Soon we were walking across the tarmac to the terminal – a wooden shack. That was it – a hut with a small baggage room and a waiting area. It was old, and had been through many re-paintings over the years. It felt like we had left Australia and were somewhere in New Guinea or Melanesia. Not knowing what we were expected to do, we waited around outside and soon enough a grey headed man in a Hilux ute (pickup truck) stopped in front of us with all of the luggage sitting on the tray. It seemed this was the baggage carousel. He stepped out and introduced himself to us as “Nev”.


This is the airport…

“So… You fellas are the birdos that Paul has been waitin’ for?”

“Birdos?” I replied “Nah, we’re here to look for reptiles and yeah, we were hiring a car off Paul.”

“Righto. Paul sent a fella down yest’day lookin for ya. He was ‘ere for ages but since ya didn’t show, he left the car ‘ere just in case.”

“I emailed ‘im to let ‘im know the flights ‘ad changed and I had never booked one for yesterday.” I replied.

“It’s all good, Paul’s an easy goin’ bloke. It’ll be right. Anyway, if you’re interested how ’bout you just take the car – it’s over there (pointing to a Hilux ute in the carpark) an the keys are in it and it’s ready ta go. I’ll see if Les can take ya out ta meet Steve. He lives in an old abattoir. One of those feel good community projects that never took off, ya know. Anyway he’s as mad as a cut snake. We all call ‘im Snakeman round ‘ere. Good bloke though, knows ‘is stuff. Once ya get ‘im goin’, ya won’t stop ‘im. Anyways, where’s Les?

Nev called to a young, brown, tall and thin man with a shock of black curly hair grown out to an Afro on his head. He would have been in his very early twenties. He was working at the airport, ferrying things back and forth. He stopped what he was doing and walked over. Phil immediately noticed Les was wearing two vastly different shoes, in colour, size and style. One was a white sneaker and it was about three sizes bigger than the other purple one on the other foot. He grinned and shook our hands. Like Nev, he was instantly likeable and very welcoming.

“So Lesley…” began Nev “When ya knock off, you wanna take these fellas out to Steve’s an’ say G’day? When can ya finish?”

“I reckon I could go ’bout now, it’s almost knock off time” replied Les. So he pushed the load on the trolley he was attending into a room and walked over. He stepped into his car and called out to us: “The road is a bit wet, just take it easy and you’ll be right. I can pull ya out if ya get stuck.”

So I picked up the keys from the driver’s seat of our car, fired it up and followed; the gear banging around on the open tray. It didn’t take long and we were on a muddy gravel road, rocking from side to side. The puddles were deep but we managed to scrape and slide through without any real problems. Soon we were at the top of a small rise. A man in his early forties emerged from the run-down and disused abattoir, slightly confused it seemed. Les introduced us and he walked over, shook our hands and showed us around.

Steve was cautious at first, but a genuinely decent guy. He had turned this already ideal reptile habitat into a perfect habitat with sheets of iron laid around thoughtfully, old tyres and fallen timber. It didn’t take us long to find some Nactus geckoes under a sheet; black with small white flecks and clawed, padless toes. Apparently taipans (Australia’s most feared snakes) are often found under the sheets too. Steve loved that fact, and to him it was a sign that he was doing the right thing. But time was short, Phil managed to find a little spotted python (Antaresia maculosa) which was a great start.

Nonda Plum (Parinari nonda)

Nonda Plum (Parinari nonda) at Steve’s place. A popular food with the Indigenous of the area before Europeans came along. It tastes like dry mashed potato.

Nonda Plum (Parinari nonda)

Apparently the nonda fruits on the trees were not always eaten, unripe plums could be picked and ripened in sand pits.

“So, where you stayin’ ta-nite?” asked Steve.

“Dunno, I s’pose we’re going to the national park and camp” I replied.

“Nah, stuff that. Just stay at Paul’s place. He won’t be home for a day or so, ‘sides, he won’t mind anyway.”

“Sure?” said Phil.

“Yeah, for sure. He’s cool, I’ll take ya there.”

“Just another thing…” I added “Paul doesn’t even know we’re here, and we didn’t pay him anything or sign any forms for the car, what do we do?”

“Don’ worry! Paul will sort it out with ya later on. He’s easy going as. Anyway, let’s go.” He turned to Les, “I’ll catch ya later Les.”

Les waved and left ahead of us while Steve drove a larger four wheel drive and we followed. We arrived at a house just out of town with a very large shed. Cars were parked all around it. A house was in the middle of the cleared block of land. Steve led us into the shed and told us we could set up anywhere. He pointed to a series of pictures printed and stuck to a wall. There was a collection of snakes including the brown headed snake (Furina tristis), the coastal taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus), whip snakes (Demansia vestigiata) and the snake we had come to see, the green python (Morelia viridis).

“The local mob ‘ere call ‘em the glow snake” mentioned Steve, pointing at a picture of one wrapped around a tree branch “They reckon they glow when they see ‘em in the headlights on the road at night. Bright green so they stand out like dog’s balls!”

“You see many?” asked Phil.

“Yeah mate, whenever I go out pretty much, though some nights I might see a dozen, others I see only one or none. See the young one there? [pointing to a bright yellow one in a picture] Rare as rockin’ horse shit. I seen only two the whole time I’ve been ‘ere. You gotta be lucky for them little ones.”

“You go far for them?” Phil replied.

“Don’ ‘ave to. We find ‘em right across the road in that there bit of forest. Crossing the roads from time to time. Seen a big old dead one a little while back. Some prick ‘ad run over it, poor bugger. Mostly ya see the big scrub pythons, but big uns are getting’ rarer these days. Lots get run over ’cause they are too big to drive round. Take up the entire road! Lots of little ones round three metres or so gettin’ ’bout. Anyway, set up an’ I’ll catch ya in the morn’.”

We felt weird about just setting up in the shed of a guy who we had rented a car from, not paid, never met and who didn’t even know we had arrived – and was not home. But the tent was up in no time and the mosquitoes arrived in earnest, bouncing off the mesh walls.

There was herping to be done. We had come all this way and we were not going to waste a night in the one rainforest I wanted to see the most. Phil was itching to see Australia’s only “true frog”, the wood frog (Hylarana daemeli). This species had eluded us on the last trip to Cairns. Apparently super abundant we had not seen even one. In the days leading up to Phil arriving, I had found plenty of them in the rainforest, and I had shown Phil one beside a stream one night but it was not the full experience. I wanted to see the fringed or growling tree frog (Litoria eucnemis) which is a species otherwise known from New Guinea.

Australian Wood Frog (Papurana daemeli)

Australian Wood Frog (Papurana daemeli)

We had only driven a short distance when I heard the loud, distinctive calls of wood frogs. It is hard to describe, but imagine rubbing a finger on a balloon with one long note and several shorter, lower pitched notes following. They also squeak and chirp, especially while males wrestle. They were all over the drain under the road and in the pools near it. The thing I noticed was the size of them. Those I had seen near Townsville and around Cairns were small in comparison, only around six centimetres. These were very large, even the males were formidable at ten centimetres or so while the females nearby were bigger still. As the males croaked, their vocal sacs either side of the mouth swelled. This sets them apart from all other Australian frogs. As the only member of the Ranidae family that includes the “typical” frogs from around the world to be found in Australia, they are somewhat of a novelty. Phil was ecstatic. A horrible smell filled our nostrils. I thought it might be a dead body, Phil remarked soberly that with the amount of exploring we do that it is “only a matter of time”. We found the culprit. A dead cane toad was covered in black beetles, some were under the skin making it writhe around. Phil was fascinated, I was happy to back away.

As we drove through the forest scanning for snakes, we noticed the frogs were everywhere. But not many species. The familiar frogs of the Wet Tropics nearby to the south were largely missing. Instead, a small number of species filled many niches. On the low branches were green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) and white lipped tree frogs (Litoria infrafrenata), obviously looking to spear tackle any small insects, frogs, lizards or snakes. Both of these species are massive, the white lipped is the largest tree frog of all, at 150mm snout to vent. The green is only slightly smaller but has a garbage-guts reputation and will try and eat almost anything it can, including said snakes. On the higher branches we saw dainty green tree frogs (Litoria gracilenta), a smaller species with a granular green back, yellow “eyebrows” and vivid orange eyes and legs. The thighs are bright purple or blue. Wood frogs made up the bulk on the ground, as did introduced cane toads. Occasionally we saw marbled marsh frogs (Limnodynastes convexiusculus) and ornate burrowing frogs (Platyplectrum ornatum) but otherwise nothing else in the way of frogs. It should be noted that the only two species from that list that are normally in rainforest are the white lipped tree frog and the wood frog. The other species are normally in other, drier habitats. We thought about the massive abundance of so few frog species and determined that it was likely that the larger size of the wood frogs meant less competition. The normal competitors from further south like barred frogs (Mixophyes) and Jungguy frogs (Litoria jungguy) were absent and not to mention, far fewer lizards.

White Lipped Tree Frog (Litoria infrafrenata)

I already had loads of pictures of the White Lipped Tree Frog (Litoria infrafrenata) from elsewhere. Still an amazing, massive frog!

Marbled Marshfrog (Limnodynastes convexiusculus)

The Marbled Marshfrog (Limnodynastes convexiusculus) was fairly common, and even calling in rainforest pools. This is not a frog you would normally see in this habitat. They are normally a floodplain species.

Platyplectrum ornatum 034

It was also very strange to see these guys. Ornate burrowing frogs (Platyplectrum ornatum) are a species most abundant in sandy river flats and floodplains. What they were doing in a muddy rainforest is anyone’s guess.

The frog I wanted to see came later. We drove past a culvert that drained a swampy part of the forest and was surrounded in a low, broad leaved bamboo. I glimpsed a brown frog on a bamboo branch and slammed on the brakes. It was a growling tree frog, and I couldn’t get near it before it hopped away into the dense bamboo. We stopped and listened. I could hear low, constant growling from a short distance into the swamp. We headed in and found dozens of growling tree frogs calling. A beautiful frog, they have green around the eyes, a light brown body with frilled edges to the legs. A prominent soft spur is on each heel. We spent an hour or so photographing and recording these gorgeous little frogs. I couldn’t help but notice that they were nearly identical to the tapping green eyed frog (Litoria serrata) from the Cairns region. The call and the heel spur are the only diagnostic features. Still, this was my goal in terms of frogs fulfilled.

Growling green eyed tree frog (Litoria eucnemis)

Growling green eyed tree frog (Litoria eucnemis)

The other frog I had really wanted to photograph was a species of rocket frog, known as the bridled frog (Litoria nigrofrenata). We found them without any trouble along the roadsides in the heathland beyond the rainforest. Males were gathered up around puddles calling loudly and were easily found by their eye shine. I must admit, though I really wanted to find this species it was a let down when we did. They are so similar to a related species in the Darwin region, it felt as though I hadn’t ticked off a new species. But in reality, I had.

Bridled Frog (Litoria nigrofrenata)

Bridled Frog (Litoria nigrofrenata)

We patrolled the road, and saw a red 4WD parked with its headlights on. It was unregistered and had no license plate. Phil is a fan of Wolf Creek, and is, to put it bluntly “wary” of strangers in the bush. It was an indigenous family, and I slowed down and leaned out the window, said “hello” and kept driving. My plan was to turn around and come back and ask if everything was OK. We did, and I asked Phil what the bet was they had run out of fuel. We chuckled and pulled over.

I called out “Hey bud, everything OK?”

The Indigenous man answered: “We got a problem with our fuel…”

“You got any fuel?” I asked.

“No.” He seemed let down “We run out.”

“Told you so…” I whispered to Phil.

“Look buddy, we got nothing to tow you with, and we got no can of fuel, so maybe we can drive you to town.” I told him.

He was relieved, so he called to the others in the car to jump on the back. The kids, as if expecting this all along had blankets and mattresses ready and made beds on the tray. There was about eight of them. Their mother and an aunty also joined them in the back while the man climbed on last and stood up, leaning on the roll bar on the roof. Hoping no police were on the roads (unlikely) we continued to look for snakes on and drove slowly towards town. Arriving half an hour later, they disembarked and walked into their house with only a quick thanks and goodbye. It was now well into the morning hours so we headed for bed in Paul’s workshop.

Into the remote Kimberley part 2 – Bush Blitz

Wow. What a year so far!

Our base of operations was Home Valley Station on the Gibb River Road

Only a couple of weeks ago, my invitation was made official to join a team of scientists and researchers in one of the most remote places on earth, the Kimberley of Western Australia. I had two jobs, thanks to Dr Mike Hammer of the Museum and Art Gallery of the NT. Bush Blitz invited me to photograph and film (I mostly got film) the people and discoveries on this trip, as well as help Mike and his counterpart Glenn from Museum WA with fish research. It was a crazy two weeks of enormous days and loads to see and do.

Flying cars… check! Helicopters were our main form of transport. There are no roads most of the time.

A normal day for me was getting up at 0530 and not finishing work until 2230, hardly stopping at all. The days were spent in the field catching animals and photographing/interviewing/filming everyone I possily could, while the nights were spent in our field lab organising media, getting wrap-up footage and photographing any fish and turtles that managed to get back.

Dr Michael Hammer with Kath and Buster looking at specimens

One of the strangest discoveries was made by yours truly. One morning I awoke, stumbled over to the shower block and found in interesting butterfly on the wall. I put it in a jar on the Entomology desk in our makeshift lab. That night at dinner, one of the Entomologists asked who put the butterfly on the desk. Apparently it was a brand new species for WA, the Chrome Awl. A small, fast shiny skipper type butterfly it was a happy accident to find it and the first new butterfly for WA in 10 years! I have no pictures as they promptly made it into a specimen before I had a chance.

The lab was a buzz of activity. Here, scientific photographer Rob Whyte is at work with some specimens to photograph

This post will focus on a bunch of people and location shots. Next up we start on the wildlife.

You can see how remote this country is. No roads or even tracks of any kind over most of it.

Just getting into these places was crazy. Helicopters were the only realistic option, cars might take weeks to find a track into just one of these. By track I mean making one. Walking would take longer. A typical flight would be 50km or more from base.

The gorges were plentiful, spectacular and unexplored. This is the approach to the secret and newly named “Cat’s Eye Pool” named by our pilot Dan.

A HDR image of upper Cat’s Eye Pool. The colours were so intense here that only HDR would do it justice.

This is upper Cat’s Eye Pool. This water was ridiculously pure and only had a few creatures living in it. Leeches, shrimps and insects were plentiful but nothing else was noted.

A HDR view of Cat’s Eye Pool

…However the lower pool was crammed with rainbowfish and mogurndas. Also a croc or two. Didn’t stop us getting in to collect specimens…

Let’s just say that it was all totally worth it. We worked hard to catch the fish in the most unlikely way…

Glenn giving it his all. Despite the unlikely method, we managed to collect a bunch of rainbowfish this way.

The rainbowfish in this pool were of a type new to science. Similar to the Exquisite of Kakadu/Katherine area I will show pictures in the next post. We tried all sorts of methods like coaxing them towards a gillnet, then surrounding a school (which all swam right through it!) before we settled on the “swim at them at full speed with a ridiculously tiny scoop net” which did the job!

Oomooloo Falls, the locality for the mystery turtle, the Kimberley Rock monitor and a great site for the new rainbowfish. However it is FULL of crocodiles, so far only the small Johnson’s Crocodile. I counted 26. Swimming was fun in here…

Obviously there was much more. Oomooloo Falls was a popular spot. In the two excursions there I managed to catch an unusual turtle (see the next post), a Kimberley Rock Monitor and the fish team caught a load of the new rainbowfish. The slightly unnerving thing was the huge number of Johnson’s (freshwater) crocodiles. Though normally harmless they have been known to bite people, sometimes without an obvious reason. I had 26 of them in the water with me (well, I counted 26!) Let’s say it is a little spooky when everyone else flatly refuses to get in with you.

…Well some got in, though reluctantly. This is seine netting the rainbowfish.

Boabs were plentiful in the gorge country

Mike and Glenn electro fishing

Because I was on the “fish team” most of my time was spent with them. We went to some amazing spots like Durack Falls which was a gold mine for endemic grunter species. See the next post for more details.

Durack Falls was a total hotspot for many fish species

The Pentecost estuary was great at sunset. That is the Chamberlain Range

Working with the local Indigenous community was central to our operation. They were fantastic with helping us with everything we asked for, and as a result of Bush Blitz they are aware of a bunch of cultural sites that had been lost to history. They were a fun group, and they came along on many of our activities. I had fun fishing with Aunty Gene and LJ in a gorge. The fishing was so good we had no trouble catching black bream (Western sooty grunter) and archer fish on lures made from bits of plastic bag! Community Day was a time of relaxing and celebrating with them. We spent much of the time sitting around chatting, fishing and playing football.

Meeting with the Traditional Owners was vital. They are just out of frame

On the community day we hung out with the Traditional Owners on the river bank

Catfish are prized on the table in Indigenous communities

The kids had a blast

We had an open day where students from Kunnunurra and Wyndham came over to see botany and zoology work first-hand.

One of the “local” schools sent out students for our open day. Here are some on the hunt for insects

It was great fun. Anyway, stay tuned for the next post on the actual species we found…

Into the remote Kimberley… Part 1

Into the remote Kimberley… Part 1

Wow… Just wow! I have been a little inactive online lately, but at least I have an excuse. I have been so incredibly caught up in actually doing all of the things I should be writing about, so much so that I have had no spare time to report back. 16 hour days, travel etc. No, I’m not complaining at all, but it is about time I filled you all in on the details of what’s been going on.

First of all, there’s the Kimberley. A vast, harsh, rocky range in Australia’s far northwest that is known for being tough and hard to access. It’s a biological hotspot for endemic species. It’s one of the places I have always wanted to see, and this year I finally had the means to get out there and do it. So in March I enlisted Linda, a German biologist to come along and help me explore the eastern edge of the Kimberley, from Kunnunurra on the Western Australian border.

I filled up the car in Darwin, then south at Katherine filled an extra 40L in jerry cans in readiness for the high fuel prices in WA. Much to our later shock, the fuel is often WAY cheaper in the remote Kimberley than Darwin, Wyndham was 15% cheaper in fact!

After 10 hours driving the still wet roads we crossed the customs checkpoint and were both in Western Australia for the first time!

The mission was to photograph the frogs of the region, and simply have a look around. The problem was it was far too late in the season for most of them, as they had all but finished breeding. However we still managed a few, plus a couple of reptiles. Access was severely limited all round due to the high water levels about the place, most roads were still isolated. Most of the time we hung around the Grotto between Kunnunurra and Wyndham, a wonderful rocky escarpment fed by a couple of waterfalls. A day to day account would be far too tedious as it involves loads of backtracking, so I will let the pictures talk…

Kunnunurra – the gateway to the Western Australia

We didn’t see much of this area as we were only passing though…

On the border of the NT/WA we found a bunch of Stonemason toadlets (Uperoleia lithomoda) which are named after their call which sounds like someone chipping a stone. The harsh tap sound hurts the ears at close range.

Once known only from the Barkly tableland in the NT, the Daly Waters Frog (Cyclorana maculosa) has turned up in the Kimberley, treated as a form of the Long Footed Frog (Cyclorana longipes)

This boab looks great in full leaf

Around Kunnunurra the reedbeds were home to Crimson finches.

The Grotto – a slice of escarpment in the savannah

At sunset I photographed this awesome looking dragon which still lacks an ID

Moon setting at camp

The only common gecko was the Kimberley Dtella, Gehyra koira.

The cute little plug tailed gecko was found crossing the Grotto carpark

In the Grotto carpark we saw a couple of Australian Owlet Nightjars (Aegolethes cristatus) sitting around waiting for insects.

At the Grotto, white quilled rock pigeons (Petrophassa albipennis) were common.

The main frog species I wanted at the Grotto was the Staccato or Chattering rock frog (Litoria staccato) but all we found was the very similar Copland’s rock frog (Litoria coplandi) which is common all over the Kimberley and the NT

The carpenter frog (Limnodynastes lignarius) has a call just like someone banging a nail into a long plank of wood. It has huge eardrums too.

Adults are commonly found on rock ledges like this one.

The bilingual froglet gets its name from the two different calls they make, often switching from one to another.

In a soak were a few Northern Toadlets (Uperoleia borealis) calling happily. Looking much like small cane toads to the untrained eye, they are thankfully native.

The Watjulum frog is a common sandstone species, breeding in small flowing soaks and streams. During the breeding season males are bright yellow.

A front view of a pale green Magnificent or Splendid tree frog (Litoria splendida)

The splendid tree frogs were also seen on trees nearby.

The desert or little red tree frog (Litoria rubella) is supposedly an Australia-wide species. Here in the East Kimberley they are distinctive.

The town of Wyndham is surrounded in salt flats. Nice.

Although harsh, the salt flats are full of life, including some very tough fish species, especially gobies that spawn in the hypersaline pools.

 The Gibb River Road – What little we could see

Boab trees are a feature of the Kimberley. Legend says they were once a tall, proud, boastful tree that was punished for being too proud by being upended and replanted upside down.

At sunset they are great to look at. The undergrowth after the wet season made photography hard.

The Gibb was mostly flooded, well too much so for my Outback, but I did get a few sunset shots at a swamp

Fishing the Pentecost River was largely uneventful. This was the limit for the car as it was too deep to cross…

On the Gibb River Road we found this Bandy Bandy (Vermicella intermedia?) next to a creek. This vivid snake is harmless to humans and only eats blind snakes.

Well, that is the best of the Kimberley for this installment. Check out part 2, Bush Blitz. Coming soon!

The Great Southeastern Road Trip – Washpool

The Washpool is an amazing relict rainforest in the higher country of northern NSW, home to some truly bizarre animals. We spent two nights checking out everything from a deadly snake to a very strange cousin of the spiders- an oplionid and even a most unlikely predator – the strange velvet worm. Frogs of course were the main target and we managed to find one of the most unusual – the marsupial frog – a species that carries its young in pouches!

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So sit back and enjoy!

The rough scaled or Clarence River snake (Tropidechis carinatus) is extremely venomous and feeds on frogs and reptiles.


Marsupial frogs (Assa darlingtoni) are remarkable. Only 2cm long, they have two hip pockets that act as pouches for developing young, like a kangaroo! … well sort of.

The beautiful glandular tree frog is becoming rare overall.

Male glandular tree frogs are very variable.